Könik, T., and Laird, J. 2006. Learning Goal Hierarchies from Structured Observations and Expert Annotations, Machine Learning. 64(1-3) 263-287
We describe a relational learning by observation framework that automatically creates cognitive agent programs that model expert task performance in complex dynamic domains. Our framework uses observed behavior and goal annotations of an expert as the primary input, interprets them in the context of background knowledge, and returns an agent program that behaves similar to the expert. We map the problem of learning an agent program on to multiple learning problems that can be represented in a “supervised concept learning” setting. The acquired procedural knowledge is partitioned into a hierarchy of goals and it is represented with first order rules. Using an inductive logic programming (ILP) learning component allows our framework to naturally combine structured behavior observations, parametric and hierarchical goal annotations, and complex background knowledge. To deal with the large domains we consider, we have developed an efficient mechanism for storing and retrieving structured behavior data. We have tested our approach using artificially created examples and behavior observation traces generated by AI agents. We evaluate the learned rules by comparing them to hand-coded rules.